Childhood in the 19th century

19Th Century Child: History, Life, Works, Education & Mor

19Th Century Child: In the 19th century working-class children were usually engaged in factories and on farms. For many people, it was better necessary for a child to bring home a wage than to get an education Childhood in the 19th century To begin with, the treatment of children with utmost care, especially in their earliest years, is a fairly recent notion. Before the 18th century, child mortality rate was so high that people had a lot of children of whom only a few actually survived In an age before super-sized toy stores, pampered children, and helicopter parents, a new concept of a child's formative years began to emerge in 19th-century New England. There was an increasing awareness that childhood was an important time, separate from infancy, yet distinctly different from young adulthood and maturity

Changes In Concepts Of Childhood 19th Century Sociology Essa

A delightful look at how nineteenth-century American artists portrayed children and childhood In an era of both optimism and anxiety about the nation's future, Americans in the nineteenth century focused attention on the cultivation and education of children as future citizens. Contemporary portrayals of children—in fine paintings, popular. The idea that children have rights that the state should protect may have seemed silly at dawn of the nineteenth century, but by the time Queen Victoria died in 1901, it had gained significant support. Beginning in the 1830s, the Victorians passed a variety of laws aimed at protecting the wellbeing of children at work, at school, or in the home. London's population grew rapidly during the 19th century. This lead to major problems with overcrowding and poverty. Disease and early death were common for both rich and poor people. Victorian children did not have as many toys and clothes as children do today and many of them were homemade. What work did Victorian children do they were physically able to do so, and continued to do so late into the nineteenth century. Their experiences changed as little as those of their parents. Also, notably in the eighteenth century, childhood became increasingly commercialized. Toys, books and games designed specifi cally for children were invented, produced an The 19th century saw the development of what is sometimes called the Cult of Childhood, with adults exultantly celebrating childhood in texts and images

A Child's World: Childhood in 19th Century New England

As genealogists dig into their family history, it is important they have a clear understanding of the leading causes of infant mortality for children born in the 19th century. Families tended to be larger in those days and infant deaths more common than they are today. Modern Medicine's Role in Child Birthin Critical Essays Children and 19th-Century England For thousands of years, families put their children to work on their farms or in whatever labor was necessary for survival — only children of the wealthy and powerful escaped this fate How did the lives of children change during the 19 th century? Until the start of the industrial revolution, children were seen as small adults with few rights of their own. By the end of the nineteenth century childhood was a very different experience. The following essay will explore how this change came about

In Sweden, in the mid 18th century, the fertility rate for married women was 7.6 children and the share of children who died before the age of 15 was 44%. 19 This means that at the time, the average Swedish mother lost around 3.3 children. For other countries the estimates for the 18th century are similar Despite this arrangement, according to the records from one early 19th century cotton mill, families frequently were in debt to the mill once store purchases and rent payments were deducted. 76 Large households, however, increased income to the family and were seen as a benefit to the mill owner. Even children too young to work were viewed as. During the 19th century, the history of child psychology was influenced by Charles Darwin with his book, On the Origin of the Species, (1859). The notion of the evolution of the species - and especially Darwin's continued search for signs of man in animal life - inevitably led to speculation about the development of man and society The 1870 Census was the first census to gather data on child labor. A report of the findings from that census concludes that more than 750,000 workers younger than 15 were counted; this does not include children who worked for their families in businesses or on farms. By 1900, more than 1.75 million American children younger than 15 were employed. Often, they worked in dangerous conditions that were hazardous to their health — and did so for extremely low wages The history of childhood has been a topic of interest in social history since the highly influential book Centuries of Childhood, published by French historian Philippe Ariès in 1960. He argued childhood as a concept was created by modern society.Ariès studied paintings, gravestones, furniture, and school records. He found before the 17th-century, children were represented as mini-adults

Young America: Childhood in 19th-Century Art and Culture

In the 19th century schooling became a dominant childhood experience. Around 1800 only a small number, mostly boys, had much formal education. By 1900, most children attended publicly supported schools for a few years, and many attended consistently between about 5 and 16 years of age The experiences of children and youth underwent profound change from the 19th century to the end of the 20th century. In the 19th century, children and youth were important contributors to the family economy. Most children learned by working alongside adults. Children's work, both paid and unpaid, was crucial to their own and to their. Child Labour in the 19th Century. Category: 19th century. The shameful practice of child labour played an important role in the Industrial Revolution from its outset. The displaced working classes, from the seventeenth century on, took it for granted that a family would not be able to support itself if the children were not employed Primary Investigative Question(s) - What was life like for children in the 19th century (150 years ago)? How was it different from the lives of children today? 2. Contextual Essay - Life was not easy for many children during the 19th century. While wealthy families did exist, the average family depended on its children to help provide.

A catalog, Young America: Childhood in 19th-Century Art and Culture, published by Yale University Press, accompanies the exhibit. In the exhibit, Perry has divided material into six sections, each. Advances in industrial mechanization at the beginning of the 20th century decreased the demand for child labor, and a tightening of enforcement loopholes made regular school attendance standard for Connecticut's children. But despite the achievements of 19th-century education advocates, it would be premature to consider the issue resolved While these changes were taking place in Japan during the early 19th century, a second transformation in education was underway in Europe and America. What defined this transformation was not a fundamental change in the number of schools or the patterns of attendance and literacy, but one in the organization and control of educational institutions

19th century American Paintings: Thomas Cole

Historical Essays: The Victorian Chil

Introduction . Some histories of childhood and family life, such as those of Philippe Ariès and Lawrence Stone, have pointed to the long eighteenth century (c.1688-1832) as the period in which children took on the attributes and qualities we tend now to take for granted Throughout the century, a somewhat more sympathetic and modern view of childhood took hold. The religious insistence on original sin began to fade among the rationality of the Enlightenment and the optimism of capitalist middle class growth (O'Malley) Get in touch with us now. , Mar 19, 2021. The child mortality rate in the United States, for children under the age of five, was 462.9 deaths per thousand births in 1800. This means that for every. adult children only out of necessity, especially in cases of poverty or infirmity. This article challenges that position, arguing that in mid-nineteenth-century America coresidence of the aged with their children was almost universal, and that the poor and sick aged were the group most likely to live alone. The article suggests that th Childhood in 19th-Century America. Americans of the nineteenth century were keenly aware of their role as the heirs of the Founding Fathers and the guardians of a new nation of the people, by the people, and for the people. Guided by the advice of the Revolutionary generation, they believed that the health of the republic depended on the.

Over the course of the nineteenth century, the United States grew from an infant republic to a powerful nation with a prominent place in world affairs. The exhibition American ABC: Childhood in 19th-Century America provides a window into the everyday world of families, children's pastimes, and the routines of the schoolhouse, and demonstrates. Children, however, are easily trained (Hawes, 1910, p 904). Because of the writing and photography of reformers such as Riis, the plight of vulnerable children became more difficult to ignore in the late nineteenth century. Poor children and those orphaned or abandoned, were highly visible in cities In the late 19th century, many urban children were employed as factory workers, and did not attend school. Between 1890 and 1920, technological advances and economic policy changes began to change society's view: children should be educated, rather than work. This allowed emphasis to be placed on the exclusive education of children during. This register, found tucked into a family Bible, catalogs childhood diseases and vaccinations of the nine siblings in the Fisher family, who lived in Philadelphia in the nineteenth century

50 photos from American life in the 19th century. Photographs have a way of capturing emotion. A photo may echo sadness and desperation, as is the case with Dorothea Lange's 1936 photograph known as Migrant Mother , showing a distraught mother and her children during the Great Depression. It may capture the spirit of triumph, as is. In the nineteenth-century, the period of teething is the most critical of childhood, according to A Practical Treatise on the Diseases of Children. Teething infants often experienced vomiting, fever, diarrhea, bleeding of the mouth, and an irritated state of some of the organs

The concept of childhood began to change during the 19th century and by the end of the Victorian era the sphere of 'childhood' was viewed by the middle class as quite separate from that of the adult world. Earlier generations of children had been exposed to the hardships and responsibilities of adult life but a new shift in attitude created an. Students will be able to analyze multiple primary sources to better understand the causes and consequences of child labor in the 19th century. Students will be able to make inferences from information in a data table and historical photographs to explain child labor in the context of industrialization in the United States (1870-1900) 313 Schooling and Poor Children in 19th-Century America MARIS A. VINOVSKIS University of Michigan Societies are always confronted with the problem of dealing with poor children. Often, this means finding ways of overcoming or compensating for the disadvantaged backgrounds of these children.Indeed, concern about the fate and well-being of disadvantaged children in the United States today ha Nineteenth Century Winter 1977: 71-5. Images of children in 19th-century American paintings. Barbara Finkelstein. Casting Networks of Good Influence: The Reconstruction of Childhood in the United States, 1790-1870. In American Childhood, ed. Joseph M. Hawes and N. Ray Hiner. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1985. pp. 112-15

What is Joyce's perception of childhood in Dublin in the late 19th/early 20th Century and how are his attitudes conveyed? In the Dubliners Joyce trails the children in his stories from childhood to maturity gradually increasing in age from one story to the next. All of the children in Dubliners live with their aunt and uncle whether this is. The Cantor Arts Center at Stanford University presented American ABC: Childhood in 19th-Century America, one of the most comprehensive art exhibitions in recent decades to deal with American childhood, from February 1 through May 7, 2006.The exhibition, which featured paintings by Winslow Homer, Thomas Eakins, George Catlin, Eastman Johnson, and other celebrated American artists, premiered at.

Abandoned Children: 19th-Century Orphanages. Charles Dickens, author of OliverTwist and many other books about orphans and the poor. During the Victorian era, England saw many technological and economic changes and improvements that caused a separate group of people, the middle class, to evolve alongside wealthy aristocrats By the early nineteenth century, the problem of abandoned or orphaned children in urban areas, especially London, reached alarming proportions. The workhouse system had been instituted in 1834 to house orphans as well as other vulnerable people in society who could not support themselves in exchange for work In the nineteenth century in poor villages in the Apennines in Italy, families apprenticed their children to padrones who put the children to work on the streets of Paris, London, New York, Moscow, and many other cities to perform with animals or with musical instruments; the children, perhaps as many as six thousand of them at the height of.

Dickens' story borders on being an exposé of how orphans were treated in the 19th century, as Oliver Twist's horrible childhood, sale into indentured servitude as an apprentice, and absorption into a criminal gang (led by the iconic Fagin and including the equally iconic Artful Dodger) was all too possible at the time Childhood in Nineteenth Century France . Download or Read online Childhood in Nineteenth Century France full in PDF, ePub and kindle. This book written by Colin Heywood and published by Cambridge University Press which was released on 02 May 2002 with total pages 350

Before the Photoshop: Here Are 20 Creepy Headless

Children's Rights History Historical overview of the Children's rights evolution In the Antiquity, nobody thought to give special protection to children. In the Middle-Age, children were considered as small adults. In the middle of the 19th century, the idea appears in France to give children special protection, enabling the progressive development of minors' rights. Since [ While throughout most of the 19th century child welfare organizations were primarily concerned with the problem of idle and vagrant children, 26 things changed toward the end of that century. Data from the 1870 census concerning the number of child laborers spurred the first widespread recognition of the problem. 2 In fact, throughout the 19th century, a country childhood was a healthier childhood. Rapid industrialization had made city life unpleasant and unhealthy. Air quality in particular declined during this period (the famous yellow fog of London was actually pollution as coal came into use both for home heating and industrial use). In London, the. Both The Three Musketeers and Little Women are relevant nineteenth century literary texts when explaining how societal changes affects children's literature. Because the view of children and childhood changed, children's literature grew as a genre to encompass many different aspects of societal standards Childhood in Nineteenth-Century France Work, Health and Education among the 'Classes Populaires

In nineteenth-century Milan, one child out of two had lost at least one parent by age twenty. In nineteenth-century China, almost one-third of boys had lost one parent or both by age fifteen. In early modern times, the younger children were, the greater chance they stood of losing their mothers rather than their fathers, because many women died. In the 19th century, illnesses, including those of children, were treated at home. That pertained to urban as well as rural children alike. In the impoverished Polish countryside, medical treatment was largely confined to the folk-medicine practices that had been passed down from one generation to another

The core of seventeenth-century thinking about the child was that it lacked self-control and self-discipline. The crux of the argument about parental and school training, put didactically by the puritan clergy who held the field of advice literature before 1660, was that children should therefore have their original sin beaten out of them In the early part of the nineteenth century thousands of children in England were employed in textile factories, workshops, and mines, usually working long hours for very low wages. Although the. Beginning in the 19th century, there were a number of misguided attempts to educate Native American children. Residential schools, run by religious organizations, were set up, and Native American children were forced to attend. The primary focus of these schools was to assimilate Native children to dominant the American culture's language.

British Librar

Abandoned children, such as Cosette and Gavroche, played a significant role in Victor Hugo's Les Misérables. However, these character's situations were not typical in France during the 19th century. Background: Abandoned children of pre-Revolutionary France became wards of a religious charity group. Here their religious education was placed. Breeching was the occasion when a small boy was first dressed in breeches or trousers. From the mid-16th century until the late 19th or early 20th century, young boys in the Western world were unbreeched and wore gowns or dresses until an age that varied between two and eight. Various forms of relatively subtle differences usually enabled others to tell little boys from little girls, in codes.

Leading Causes of 1800's Infant Mortalit

  1. In the late 19th century, hundreds of children lived on the streets of New York, turned out of their homes or separated from their loved ones. Many actually did have loving families but living conditions in the tenements were so squalid that some chose to sleep on the street
  2. Children appear in a great deal of seventeenth-century Northern European art, a region where genre painting was extremely popular. Sometimes children appeared in semi-allegorical paintings such as Jan Steen's A School for Boys and Girls , where the pupils are shown behaving exactly as children do
  3. ated by work to lives centered around school. The author argues that this change was accompanied by substantial improvements for many in the home environment, in health and nutrition, and in leisure opportunities
  4. Common Diseases occurred and took over during the 19th century in America. People were dying of diseases, such as cholera, typhus, smallpox and tuberculosis. It was estimated that as many as 1 person in 10 died of smallpox. More than half the working class died before their fifth birthday. Fr.
  5. Synopsis : Nineteenth Century Children written by Gillian Avery, published by London : Hodder and Stoughton which was released on 08 August 1965. Download Nineteenth Century Children Books now!Available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format
  6. Children's Literature in Nineteenth Century India: Some Reflection and Thoughts.In 1962 the National Library of India, known as the Imperial Library under the British Raj, compiled a bibliography of children's literature in Bengali that listed 5060 books and 133 periodicals published between 1818-1962. With Calcutta as the imperial capital of the British until 1911, this Bibliography on.
Marilyn Monroe On The Beach With Her Mother In 1929

Children and 19th-Century England - CliffsNote

  1. In nineteenth-century Ireland the number of destitute children was so great that the workhouse system by itself was inadequate. In 1858 reformatories were brought in, and industrial schools in 1868. Existing schools or institutions could apply for a capitation grant paid for by the government, and after 1899 by the local authority of the child.
  2. al justice.
  3. Mourning Becomes Them: The death of children in nineteenth-century American art. Catherine E. Kelly July 21, 2016 Art In the midst of life we are in death Fig. 1. Memorial to Daniel Kuhn (1803-1810) by Sarah Kuhn (1793-1832), 1812. Silk and watercolor on silk; 20 7⁄8 by 26 3⁄4 inches, 32by 38framed. The faces and background were.
  4. Nineteenth century reformers and labor organizers sought to restrict child labor and improve working conditions to uplift the masses, but it took the Great Depression—a time when Americans were.
  5. Late 19th-Century Maps Show Measles Mortality Before Vaccines. By Rebecca Onion. Feb 03, 2015 9:14 AM. nearly all children got measles by the time they were 15 years of age

Effect of the 19th Century on Children - UKEssays

  1. The National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (NSPCC) was founded in 1889; and earlier, in 1870, the Education Act had brought huge changes. The Act put in place the building blocks for a free and compulsory education system. Gradually, every child in Britain was introduced to schooling. By the late 19th century, children's.
  2. Children's institutions in nineteenth-century Sydney. In the 1790s in the struggling colony of New South Wales, some concern was expressed in Sydney Town about the growing number of neglected or destitute children living rough in the streets without visible support beyond their own efforts in dealing with the world
  3. Womens Rights, Women's Rights Movement This entry includes 2 subentries: The Nineteenth Century The Twentieth Century The Nineteenth Century During the Colonial era Woman, WOMAN This article is arranged according to the following outline: the historical perspective Biblical Period marriage and children women in househol Renaissance, In the medieval period, few women described women's.
  4. American ABC: Childhood in 19th-Century America. February 1 - May 7, 2006 . The Cantor Arts Center at Stanford University presents American ABC: Childhood in 19th-Century America, one of the most comprehensive art exhibitions in recent decades to deal with American childhood, from February 1 through May 7, 2006. The exhibition, which features paintings by Winslow Homer, Thomas Eakins, George.
  5. Introduction: Nineteenth Century Childhoods in Interdisciplinary and International Perspectives. Jane Eva Baxter and Meredith Ellis. Part 1: Children, Nationalism, and Dimensions of Identity. The Manipulation of Indigenous Imagery to Represent Canadian Childhood and Nationhood in 19th Century Canada. Loren Lerner
  6. During the 19th century, the pain was thought to make women love their children more and childbirth was a noble feat. Midwives attended the majority of births through most of the 19th century, especially in the American South
  7. Poverty, Motherhood, and Childhood in 19th-Century San Francisco Teresa Dujnic Bulger, PhD, RPA WSA Archaeological Consultants Presented at the Society for American Archaeology Conferences 80th Annual Conference, San Francisco, California. April 19, 2015 Introduction When we think of a seaport like San Francisco in the 1870s and 1880s, we might.

Before the 19th-century children were always dressed like little adults. In that century the first clothes made especially for children appeared such as sailor suits. A number of inventions to do with clothing were made in the 19th century. Thomas Hancock invented elastic in 1820. The safety pin was invented in 1849 by Walter Hunt 897 Words4 Pages. Literature for children in the 19th century. Since the view of childhood changes in the nineteenth century, the potential of children's literature becomes evident. With the reference to the sources of children's literature, they can be traced back to alterations in translation and in the literature for adults, where a. Childhood Mortality in Nineteenth-Century England. The issue of childhood mortality is written into the works of Gaskell and Dickens with alarming regularity. In Mary Barton, Alice tells Mary and Margaret that before Will was orphaned, his family had buried his six siblings. There is also the death of the Wilson twins, as well as Tom Barton's. Victorian children were at risk of dying from a lot of diseases that we've eradicated or can control in the 21 st century, like smallpox, measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, and dysentery (to name just a few). Death was a common visitor to Victorian households; and the younger one was, the more vulnerable he or she would be 19th vs 21st Century Family Life Recommendations There were no facilities then but now we have parks, centers, nurseries etc. where children are given the opportunities to play and explore. Parents are encouraged to join in the fun There is a big move that's encouraging familie

Traditional Fine Arts Organization: Childhood in 19th Century America; 2006 ; About the Author. Nicole O'Driscoll has been writing since 2000. She is published in The James Joyce Bloomsday Centenary Collection and has written about social exclusion and incarceration in Samuel Beckett's Trilogy. O'Driscoll is a qualified nurse who manages a. nineteenth-century pedagogical experimentation that culminated in the common schools. s The charity schools with their concern for children were supple­ mented by older mixed forms of relief such as houses and schools of indus­ try that included adults and children and the worthy and unworthy poor Blog. July 16, 2021. Internal communication best practices and tips; July 13, 2021. How to Not Get Lost in a Forest of Fear; July 9, 2021. Remote work culture: How to support a happy and productive remote tea Victorian Era Orphanage. It is believed that the miracle which would take place in the life of an orphan is Adoption. Orphans were normally adopted by their immediate relatives, neighbours or couples without children. Laws related to adoption did not prevail in the Victorian era and so most of the instances of adoption were informal Childhood became the subject of intense scrutiny. While some young chiidren attended school from the early 19th century, new ideas of childhood meant that, by 1900, kindergarten for the youngest pupils was entrenched in public schools. By the end of the first decade of the 20th century, supervision during school hours ha

Child and Infant Mortality - Our World in Dat

  1. Alice Violett is a PhD student at the University of Essex. Her AHRC-funded research aims to break down the only-child stereotype by comparing late nineteenth and early twentieth century perceptions of only children with the lived experiences of only children born in the period, through autobiographies and oral histories
  2. Late 19th- and early 20th-century developments. Until about 1890 the theoretical elements in teacher preparation were of two kinds: the study of certain principles of teaching and school management, exemplified in the textbooks written by experienced schoolmen that were published in many countries during the second half of the 19th century; and instruction in mental and moral.
  3. DURING THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY T HE BASIC PURPOSE of this chapter is to use the public use sample of the 1900 census to construct improved estimates of levels of child mortality in the United States during the last decade of the nineteenth century. The 1900 census asked questions on the number of children that had been born to women and th
  4. Raising Children in the Victorian Times. Childhood barely existed for most British children at the end of the eighteenth century, since they began a lifetime of hard labour as soon as they were capable of simple tasks. By contrast, the fortunate children of the wealthy generally were spoiled and enjoyed special provisions for the need of a.
  5. Since the 18th century, new ideas about children and how they should be treated became the topic of debate and several laws were introduced to protect young.
  6. Growing Up in Nineteenth-Century Ireland: A Cultural History of Middle-Class Childhood and Gender. Mary Hatfield. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019. 304 pp, £60.00 (hardcover), ISBN 978--019-884342-9. Mary Hatfield's first monograph makes a welcome contribution to the history of nineteenth-century Irish childhood and education
  7. Abuse of children is not entirely a modern phenomenon but the definition and classification of abusive practices has changed. Modern concepts of child abuse date only from the 1880s in France. Child abuse in twentieth-century terms of emotional and physical assault, neglect, abandonment, and sexual molestation was not considered a crime during most of the past century. Prior to the 1880s, only.

In the 19th century, the medical profession was loathe to discuss illegal abortion and tried to pretend it was all done by midwives and 'guid' women (as in the recently produced film, Vera Drake). One of the best accounts by a doctor was in Somerset Maugham's book Liza of Lambeth, where the heroine dies of septic abortion. Undoubtedly. The portrayal of childhood disability in 19th century British literature is very useful in providing information on how disabled people were viewed and presented at that time. In Victorian Britain, disability was increasingly becoming more of an interest, and 'afflicted' and 'defective' bodies were the focus of many plots of popular literature and drama

Franz Peter Schubert Biography - Facts, Childhood, Family

History of child labor in the United States—part 1: little

  1. Nineteenth century - public hangings. Children, like adults, continued to be sentenced to death for a very large number of felonies up to 1838 although it was normal for younger children to have their sentences commuted for the less serious crimes as there was increasing public disquiet about hanging children
  2. Marriage in the 19th Century. In the 19th century Britain women were expected to marry and have children. However, there was in fact a shortage of available men. Census figures for the period reveal there were far more women than men. There were three main reasons why women outnumbered men
  3. g into vogue. Previously, women had always worked in agriculture
  4. Life & Death in the 19th Century. Click here to return to the Family History Articles Introductory page. In 21st century Britain, we perhaps take the benefits of clean water supplies, safe sewage disposal, protection from life-threatening diseases by vaccination and other aspects of public health for granted
Beethoven - LIFE IN VIENNAMichael Faraday Biography - Childhood, Life AchievementsBavarian Palace Administration | Palaces | Linderhof Palace

For example, what games did children play in the mid-19th Century? We can learn about games and amusements of the era by reading primary sources, taking hints from even earlier eras, looking at preserved toys, and trying to play/create the games or toys the children had to learn hands-on about the nuances and fun of these pastimes Nineteenth-Century Europe VINCENT J. KNAPP Abstract. Statistics initially developed as a recognized field in the social sci- . ences in the middle of the nineteenth century. The European medical profession first made use of mounting statistical evidence to dramatize infant mortality, one of the great social problems of the century Some mid-nineteenth-century children's dresses, especially best dresses for girls over ten, were reflective of women's styles with currently fashionable sleeve, bodice, and trim details. This trend accelerated in the late 1860s when bustle styles came into fashion. Children's dresses echoed women's clothing with additional back fullness, more. Children soon ended up working in all types of industry. You may wonder why these children were not at school. This is simply because education in the early 19th century was not compulsory. Many schools were expensive to send a child to, so working class families couldn't afford to send children there These children are only a representation of the many Black children who would have lived in poverty, degradation and isolation in 19th Century England. Thanks to organisations like Barnardo's these shown here are amongst some of those documented The maintenance of Gypsy Life in the 19th Century A backbone of the Gypsy family economy was the selling of small goods by women and children, whether home made (as in pegs, mats, flowers and baskets) or bought in. Additional income came from love charms and fortune telling

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